Facing up to a changing World: how to deal with it? - Eric GOBERVILLE
Warming of the climate system has now become unequivocal, being clearly detected in all functional units of the Earth system. Climate variability influences living systems ranging from marine to terrestrial and from the atmosphere to the deep ocean, impacting virtually all biological processes and systems from the cell to the biosphere level. In both the terrestrial and marine realms, studies have shown that current climate change strongly impacts the abundance, spatial distribution and phenology of species, both directly and indirectly. The erosion of biodiversity, estimated to be 100 to 10,000 greater than the natural rate of extinction, is currently faster than at any time in history. As warming is likely to range between ~1 to ~5°C by 2100, these changes may amplify towards the end of this century. Here, we introduce what global climate change is and provide clear evidence of the impacts of warming on ecological and biological systems. We review how ecosystems and species have already responded to environmental change at different spatial and temporal scales. Finally, using modelling approaches as tools for predicting the consequences of global warming on species, we explore the future of biodiversity in a changing World.